Glossary

GLOSSARY specially adapted for this website; the area of Dutch Southern- Limburg and adjacent areas of the Rhine -Meuse Eurregion


References in parentheses are examples of authors among many others.

Aggradation: the raising of the streambed elevation,causing decrease in channel capacity. Characteristic for aggradation is excess sediment deposition in the channel leaving large pebble/ cobble beaches at the riverside(s) - pebble clasts
( L. Schulte, 2002)  River response and terrace aggradation in the in the Mediterannean Iberian peninsula during historical times
As palaeosol: local horizon - complex of fossilized soil, buried beneath the eolian cover sand horizons, integrated in the large gravel depositions called "Zutendaal gravels¨characterized by mainly (intense) red oxidations and loam lenses (Paulissen, Gullentops, 1974)
Ref: 
H.E Stremme 1998 Correlation of Quaternary pedostratigraphy from western to eastern Europe Catena Volume 34, Issues 1–2, Pages 105–112
Libuseˇ Smolikova, Pavel Havlicek , Oldrich ˇ Holasek and; Michal Vachek 2008  The “Red Section” in Langenlois (Lower Austria): Micromorphology, Stratigraphy and Geological Implications -PDF
Erik P. M. Meijs
2001 Loess stratigraphy in Dutch and Belgian Limburg  51 -1 pp 115-131 
Bipolar technique: Hard hammer technique, using hammer and anvil for the fabrication of  stone tools. The bipolar technique is connected to early stages in stone tool production (Odell, 1996; Kooyman, 2000), experimental descriptions by C. Hardaker n.d. and J.W. van der Drift, 2009)
movie Dr. Nina Kononenko (youtube)
Bipolar techniques in the Old Palaeolithic Drs. J.W. van der Drift, APAN 
Bronze age:  The period after the Neolithic, usually defined by the use of  copper/ bronze and changing pottery (techniques), a changing weaponry (different flint arrow points) and a changing economy (so called moving villages).
The old chronology by Muller- Karpe in Germany (1959) and Hatt (1961) in France has the following divison of the Bronze Age - Iron Age period
Muller-Karpe / Hatt                           [BC]
Bronze age  D   Bronze final I           1300–1200
Hallstatt A1      Bronze final IIa         1200–1100
Hallstatt A2      Bronze final IIb         1100–1000
Hallstatt B1      Bronze final IIIa        1000–900
Hallstatt B2/3   Bronze final IIIb        900–750
Hallstatt C        Hallstatt ancien          750–600
Hallstatt D        Hallstatt moyen / final  600–450

The chronology  of the Late Bronze Age for the southern parts of Germany by Lanting and Van der Plicht ( 2000/2001)
Lanting and van der Plicht(2001/2002)[BC/BP]
Bronze age t D     1325–1200 3100–3000
Hallstatt A1          1200–1125 3000–2950
Hallstatt A2          1125–1025 3000–2875
Hallstatt B1          1025–925 2875–2800
Hallstatt B2            — —
Hallstatt B3           925–800 2800–2650
Hallstatt C             800–625 2650–2450
Hallstatt D             625–480 2500–2400
Chopper:  a pebble of various raw materials (flint, quartzite, quartz, etc. ) unifacial flaked to make a sharp cutting edge to make it a tool. Categorized in tool types by Louis and Mary Leakey (1951 Olduvai Gorge, a report on the evolution of the hand - axe culture in beds I - IV)
Chopping tool: a pebble of various raw materials (flint, quartzite, quartz, etc. )
bifacially  flaked. to make a sharp cutting edge, to make it a tool.
Chopper Chopping tool Complex C.C.C. : co existing tool technology during Acheulean and Middle Palaeolithic periods, characterized by artifacts made on pebbles, producing artifacts with a butt handle and a ( small) working edge, showing large similarities with the traditional Oldowan type tools as described by F. Bordes ( 1964) and M. Leakey (1971). First described by A. Wouters ( 1984) In fact C. C. C. could be regarded as a contemporary Middle - Late Pleistocene Chopper Chopping tool Industry coexisting with the European Acheulean; see also Originsnet, Gallery Oldowan, Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, NW Europe
Later Acheulean Stone tools
Lithic Technology chapter 10  [ The University of California]
Cover sands: Sand deposited by wind action across areas of countryside to provide a cover deposit over any exposed ground surface, sometimes forming land dunes, depending on predominant wind direction(s).
Cromerian Complex: a long spanning stage  in the Pleistocene, from 85O.000 BP  till 420.000 BP, starting for N-W Europe from MIS 21- MIS 13 (Dees, 2004) with at least three different interglacials ( Preece, 2001) and several glacials (West, 1980,  Ehlers,  Gibbard and  Hughes , 2011) The Belgian Kempen Plateau is thought to be have formed during Cromerian stages, especially stage B.
Zagwijn, W.H. 1985 An outline of the  Quaternary stratigraphy of the Netherlands -PDF
Tom McCann, Geological Society of London - 2008 - Science 
map of the Cromerian rivers N-W Europe
Zagwijn W. H. 1988: The Netherlands. during the Tertiary and the Quaternary:A case history of Coastal Lowland evolution -PDF 
Developed Oldowan: ( abbr. DO) Core -flake industries with bifacial flaking. It is sub divided into DO-A, DO-B and DO-C (M. Leakey,) as transitional tool technologies between the Oldowan and the Acheulean tool technologies (Semaw, Rogers and Stout, 2009) In the Belgian Kempen region, tools in the assemblages are Acheulian - like, but a better word would be DO, as the real Acheulian tools are more sophisticated and much better shaped.  Images at : OriginsNet  Early Paleolithic Phase I: Early Acheulian & Developed Oldowan B (c. 1.4 MYA to 1.0 MYA).
Drifting Dunes: Longitudinal formed dunes, formed by predominated directions of the wind, i.c. from the west and the north - west. We distinguish for the Kempen region  so called  "falling dunes", "falling"over the plateau's edge in the east. Amoeba -shaped plateau edges occur at the east side of the Kempen, due to falling dunes.
Eisden-Lanklaar terrace:  river terrace, build by the Maas/ Meuse river by fluvial depositions, during  SaalianV, MIS 6 (rvde. nl, 2010; T. v. Kolfschoten : 47 /1993) Very well visible near Rotem: the Saalian bend in the river at Schootsveld
Elsterian: the glacial period in the Pleistocene  between 465.000 BP and  418.000 BP ; the Maas/ Meuse river had its coarse over the Kempen Plateau, leaving a last part of very fine gravels at the plateau 's top. Corresponding the British Anglian stage (MIS12)
Eluvium flint: Flint, originating from cretaceous bedrock, dissolved during Tertiary and early Quaternary conditions. Dissolved flint could have  been transported by  river and can be found in depositions of the river terraces. On the other hand, eluvium flint could have been picked up in a region where dissolved cretaceous horizons are exposed, e.g. in the area of Vaals / Aachen.
Freehand technique (or: freehand percussion):  Reduction technique where a stone, piece of bone, antler or wood  is stroke against another stone, without the use of an anvil. In this technique, we find no counter -shocks. The advantage of this technique is the requirement of regular working edges with more predictable fracture patterns, compared to e.g. the bipolar technique. To adapt a stone in this technique, the preshape is important as well as the features of the raw material (flint, fine grained quartzite).
Gravenvoeren terrace: A Maas/ Meuse river terrace, named after the Belgian community of 's Gravenvoeren, estimated age 590.000 BP, corresponding with the final stages of the building of the Kempen Plateau.
Geofacts: objects that look man-made, but are in reality made by nature, i.c. by geological processes such as cryoturbations (often showing "retouch"), frost splitting (creating pseudo- percussion rings) or natural breaking patterns. The early man site of  Calico (Southern California, USA) is believed to be a site where geofacts appear, though there is a big resemblance with man-made tools.
Sometimes it is a rather easy way to explain away difficult objects, without proper study ( Jacques Boucher de Perthes, an historical example0 Christopher Hardaker article Calico redux: artifacts or geofacts?  Earthsmeasure research -PDF
Holsteinian: the European terrestrial equivalent of MIS 11 (V. Kolfschoten, 2003; J Nitychoruk2006; A Koutsodendris, 2010) Period spanning 418.000 BP till 386.000 BP. During this period a local palaeosol was formed. The Holsteinian period was much warmer than the Holocene, but the North Sea was still a continental plain between Belgium/ Holland and England, giving a shared shoreline between Suffolk (GB) and Friesland (NL). The local red oxidated horizons at MA6 Maasmechelen (B) is showing a sloping gradient eastwards to the Maas/ Meuse river, pointing at possible erosion processes during MIS 11.Corresponding with the British Hoxnian stage (MIS11) but this is not without discussion (Urban 1995; Klostermann 1995; Zagwijn 1996).
The Holsteinian, The European terrestrial equivalent of marine isotope stage 11, T. v. Kolfschoten 2003
Kempen area: (French: Campine), name for a sandy region in Belgium (Belgian Limburg) and in the adjacent of The Netherlands (Dutch Noord- Brabant).This web-log is only about the Belgian part. From nature and geology an interesting area with large forests, reforested sand-pits ( stratigraphies), heathlands and small villages and the Maas/ Meuse valley. Main cities are Maaseik and Genk. Tourist recommended, see: Nationaal Park Hoge Kempen and  Fietsparadijs Limburg (Cycling in Belgian Limburg)
Kikbeekbron Valley:  former sandpit in the Belgian community of Opgrimbie, turned into natural landscape. Geological interesting for large stratigraphies. The Kikbeek ( brook) used to have its sources at the "Bronnenberg", where several ( at least 3)  fossil sources still are visible, running downhill in east and north eastern direction. Example of a fossil gully, indicating the sloping gradient towards the Maas/ Meuse river during the Saalian (?) Map of location (marked  a on map)
Mode 1 technology: Method of controlled flaking, where a spherical hammerstone is used to cause conchoidal fractures removing flakes from a surface to create a sharp edge. (Clark 1977;  Mode 1 is usually referring to the Oldowan, where choppers and chopping tools and flakes are abundant unifacial reworked  tools, made by Homo habilis and Homo ergaster (Drees, 2009; Schoenemann 2002) Both Mode 1 and Mode 2 technologies from Europe are called European Oldowan.
OriginsNet Oldowan Era (sites with Mode 1 tool technology)
Mode 2 technology : Method of tool production attributed to the Acheulean period, large bifacial tools, large flakes,cleavers, bifaces( handaxes) (Clark 1977)
OriginsNet Early Palaeolithic Mode2 tool technology (Acheulean ) sites
Pebble tool: Processed pebble or rock, from a fluvial context (river, seacoast)  transformed into a stone tool by unifacial or bifacial blows, usually divided into choppers (uniface) and chopping tools ( biface). M. Leakey  and F. Bordes  made principle basic typology on pebble tool assemblages, varying from pics, choppers, spheroids, cores, etc. 
Pleistocene: Large period in Europe between 2,.588.000 BP to 11.700 BP, part of the Quaternary period, which was determinative for the geological/ environmental conditions of early hominids. Pleistocene features, like glacial/ interglacial conditions, fossilized floors, forming important indications of the environmental circumstances for the early hominids. Pleistocene Maas/ Meuse gravels
Proto-biface: also called "preform - biface", a roughly shaped biface with the same function as the "usual"biface, but made in a more archaic technology, often applied on different raw material ( i.e. on a pebble instead of flint)
Ryckholt Flint Mining area near Ryckholt (NL): mainly during the Neolithic operated flint mines near the Ducth community of Rijckholt near Maastricht, Limburg. The flint mine complex was first discovered in 1881 by Marcel de Puydt. He was followed by Hamal Nandrin, who investigated the area  over 50 years. In 1964 Drs. Waterbolk made his excavations in the area. For a bibliography see :vuursteenmijnen-bronnen (website H. Engelen)
River terrace sequences: templates for quaternary geochronology as terraces are build up during typical river dynamics circumstances ( e.g.glacials, with high energy depositions, building up terraces). Corresponding terraces indicate relative age, highest river terraces are the oldest, the present flood plain the most recent(  Toyoshima, 1984; Bridgland, 2004; Su, 2009)
Ton Van Hoof and M.W.van den Berg ; River Basin Sediment Systems - Archives of Environmental Change, Taylor & Francis 2010
IGCP 449 /518, Durham University  (Image record ) Longitudinal profile of the Maas river terraces (NJG)
Saalian Complex :glacial period in North- West Europe, roughly from 238.000 BP  till 128.000 BP, (corresponding with  MIS 6-7)  preceded by the Oostermeer interglacial period. Often the period between the Holsteinian and the final stage of the Saalian is put together in MIS 6- till MIS 10, 400- 120 ka - discontinuity of peopling in Europe, due to changing climates ( Condemi,Weniger, 2011). The Saalian period is divided into at least two different glacial periods ( MIS 8 and /or 10 and MIS 6 (Edelman, 2009).  The position of archaeological finds in  the MA1 section makes it believable,  large glacial basins were left on the height of the Kempen plateau, some of them later turned into temporary sources (ASAC). The Saalian Complex is subdivided into 5 sections, see also  QSJ 52/01 Werner Nowel 
Saalian 1 (MIS 10) Early Saalian
Saalian 2 (MIS 9) Landes interglacial
Saalian 3 (MIS 8) Glacial
Saalian 4 (MIS 7) Hoogeveen/ Bantega interstadials
Saalian 5 (MIS 6) Glacial
See info website of Ecomare Saalian 
The Saalian Complex is partially corresponding with the French /German Riss stadial complex (MIS 10-MIS 6)
SIBELCO pit: very large pit in the Kempen region near Maasmechelen. Though the main objective is the excavations of ( white) Miocene quartz sands, quaternary stratigraphies are visible and could be studied. An overview in Dutch about the change from pit into nature : ecologische herstructurering groeven Mechelse Heide
Toul captation: (Moselle mineralization) in the period before ca. 350.000 BP the Maas/ Meuse river had a much larger load, from the area behind the French Langres Plateau, bringing different pebbles to the Kempen region, such as pebbles and rocks from the Moselle area and the French Vosges mountains. After the Toul captation, that took place nearby the French community of Toul, the Moselle bend to the east into the river Rhine.
Weichselian: glacial period corresponding with MIS 4- MIS 2 and during from ca 110.000 BP - 12.000 BP. This period is characterized for many short climate changing events, intervals. During this period we find the LGM, the Last Glacial Maximum at 25.000 - 20.000 BP.This period is known for Neanderthal habitation in the Lower countries, i.c. for the studied area in the two separate periods of ca. MIS 5, MIS 6, 133.000 BP  for oldest occupation ( pre- Eemian, so Late Saalian) and  MIS 4, MIS 3 ( 60.000- 50.000 BP)
Zeifen interstadial: period during the Late- Saalian corresponding with MIS 6.01 - corresponding with 133.000 BP  Hans Vanderdriessche Klimaat, landschap en lithische productie in het vroege Midden-Paleolithicum van Noordwest- Europa- PDF thesis
Zutendaal gravels: top horizons on the Kempen plateau, fluvial depositions from the Cromerian period, locally integrated as the As palaeosol.(Paulissen, 1974) ( delfstoffen vlaanderen pdf ( in dutch).
Locally reworked. remixed with older sand (Winterslag zanden) or reworked with eolian sands ( early Saalian). Gravel layers up to 15 meters, gravel size with variable dimensions,containing ice raft blocks.


Related images

The relations  and links of  present surface finds from the prehistory   






Main locations of the MA4 -site complex
Location of the Belgian Kempen area in the world

Position of grip on pebble artifacts

last update feb 2015
( to be updated)

1 comment:

  1. Hallo,
    Du hat eine sehr schöne, ganz tolle und interessante Seite.

    Ich habe gerade angefangen darin herumzustönern.

    Auf der Seite:
    Steentijd in Noord-Brabant stellst Du Bilder von Knikkers ein.
    Das sind keine Knikkers, sondern Geschosse die mit einer Armbrust verschossen werden.
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    http://www.google.de/imgres?q=Kugelschnepper&um=1&hl=de&sa=N&tbo=d&biw=1333&bih=655&tbm=isch&tbnid=jyx9qXIGrQUshM:&imgrefurl=http://www.dhm.de/gos-cgi-bin/dbfrage.pl%3FThema%3DKugel%26Status%3D380%26Datenbank%3Dallwww&docid=LzoPR4jF-o5TNM&itg=1&imgurl=http://www.dhm.de/gos-cgi-bin/gifklein%253Fmi008104&w=64&h=100&ei=JtQgUbSTJMnV4QSZ4oHoAQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=873&vpy=61&dur=3600&hovh=92&hovw=59&tx=84&ty=72&sig=109412529916080720240&page=2&tbnh=92&tbnw=59&start=24&ndsp=42&ved=1t:429,r:53,s:0,i:248


    Gruß
    markus

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